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Welcome to Camopedia


The Camopedia site is a living document, providing a comprehensive, accurate, and academically-supported database referencing all of the major military and paramilitary camouflage patterns that have been in use around the world since the beginning of the 20th century. This reference is available as a free resource for historians, government agencies, military personnel, collectors, artists & designers, airsoft & MILSIM enthusiasts, military modelers, and all others with an interest in camouflage design, development, and history.

Although we have been inspired and assisted by numerous other scholars and researchers, the contents presented here are primarily based on the conclusions of our own independent research. Whenever possible, we have made every effort to independently verify traditional sources of identification, and in many cases have made discoveries that are presented to the public here for the first time. In a very few instances, we have opted to make educated inferences regarding the identification of certain designs or samples taken from extant specimens; these cases are noted individually as unverified whenever possible. Primary sources for our data include: information from official government or military publications and nomenclature, period photographs from a variety of primary sources, physical specimens (with provenance), published material, and unpublished material from academic or military sources that can be verified. This site prides itself on having rigid standards for verification, and although our sources are not always cited nor every piece of evidence presented, the visitor can rest assured that such documentation has been vetted and would be available for review in the event some information presented here was questioned. For a thorough explanation of the methodology developed specifically for this site, please refer to the special section on Research Methodology for Camouflage Uniform Collectors.

Although we have done our best to give credit for supportive source material when appropriate, all of the text presented here is our own and we take full responsibility for any errors or mistakes encountered. As a living document, sections of the site are constantly being updated as new information becomes available to us. This website and all it contains is copyrighted 2010-2019 -- All rights reserved. We ask that a courteous reference to this site please be made whenever visitors choose to cite, paraphrase or otherwise utilize the intellectual property presented here in another format.

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of fellow collectors, historians, military personnel, and published authors - particularly fellow members of the International Camouflage Uniform Society (ICUS) - for their support, contributions, and assistance in clarifying data for this site. Where appropriate, these individuals are credited individually in the appropriate sections.

Original submissions, corrections and supplemental information are welcomed and appreciated, in order for the site to expand. Individuals whose input substantially adds to the content of individual pages will be credited in the appropriate section(s). We encourage anyone with clear photographic examples of patterns not represented herein (or those represented only by photographs borrowed from the public domain) to submit them so we may add to and improve the site. Any data to be considered for inclusion on this site should be appropriately documented with source material. By submitting materials (including photographs) to this site, you have granted us permission to use them in perpetuity, free of charge, and without any guarantee of credit or acknowledgement.

Should you have any comments please send email to:

Thank you for patronizing this site,

Eric H Larson, Executive Editor




We have based the organization of this site on the geographical and composition system utilized by the United Nations. As with most classification systems, this one is not perfect and may cause some confusion or consternation with the occasional visitor to our site. Please understand we utilize the system only to maintain a standard, and not as a symbol of embracing a particular political outlook. We understand that a few of the countries listed here consider themselves part of a different region or continent, and respect the cultural significance of this affiliation. For reference purposes the United Nations' classification system can be found here: United Nations Geographical Regions


* algeria.gif Algeria* angola.gif Angola
* benin.gif Benin* biafra.gif Biafra
* botswana.gif Botswana* burkinafaso.gif Burkina Faso
* burundi.gif Burundi* cameroon.gif Cameroon
* capeverde.gif Cape Verde* central%20african%20republic.gif Central African Republic
* chad.gif Chad* comoros.gif Comoros
* congo(drc).gif Democratic Republic of Congo* congo.gif Republic of Congo
* ivorycoast.gif Côte d'Ivoire* djibouti.gif Djibouti
* egypt.gif Egypt* equitorial%20guinea.gif Equatorial Guinea
* eritrea.gif Eritrea* ethiopia.gif Ethiopia
* gabon.gif Gabon* gambia.gif Gambia
* ghana.gif Ghana* guinea.gif Guinea
* guinea-bissau.gif Guinea-Bissau* katanga.gif Katanga
* kenya.gif Kenya* lesotho.gif Lesotho
* liberia.gif Liberia* libya2.gif Libya
* madagascar.gif Madagascar* malawi.gif Malawi
* mali.gif Mali* mauritania.gif Mauritania
* mauritius.gif Mauritius* morocco.gif Morocco
* mozambique.gif Mozambique* namibia.gif Namibia
* niger.gif Niger* nigeria.gif Nigeria
* rhodesia.gif Rhodesia* rwanda.gif Rwanda
* saotome.gif São Tomé and Príncipe* senegal.gif Senegal
* seychelles.gif Seychelles* sierra%20leone.gif Sierra Leone
* somalia.gif Somalia* south%20africa.gif South Africa
* south%20africa%20-%20Bophuthatswana.gif South Africa - Bophuthatswana* south%20africa%20-%20ciskei.gif South Africa - Ciskei
* south%20africa%20-%20gazankulu.gif South Africa - Gazankulu* south%20africa%20-%20ka%20ngwane.gif South Africa - Ka Ngwane
* south%20africa%20-%20kwa%20ndebele.gif South Africa - Kwa Ndebele* south%20africa%20-%20kwa%20zulu.gif South Africa - Kwa Zulu
* lebowa.gif South Africa - Lebowa* south%20africa%20-%20qwaqwa.gif South Africa - Qwa Qwa
* south%20africa%20-%20transkei.gif South Africa - Transkei* south%20africa%20-%20venda.gif South Africa - Venda
* southsudan.gif South Sudan* south%20west%20africa.gif South West Africa
* sudan.gif Sudan* swaziland.gif Swaziland
* tanzania.gif Tanzania* togo.gif Togo
* tunisia.gif Tunisia* uganda.gif Uganda
* zaire.gif Zaire* zambia.gif Zambia
* zimbabwe.gif Zimbabwe 


* afghanistan.gif Afghanistan* armenia.gif Armenia
* azerbaijan.gif Azerbaijan* bahrain.gif Bahrain
* bangladesh.gif Bangladesh* bhutan.gif Bhutan
* brunei.gif Brunei* myanmar.gif Burma (Myanmar)
* cambodia.gif Cambodia* china.gif China
* cyprus.gif Cyprus* east%20timor%20(timor-leste).gif East Timor (Timor-Leste)
* georgia.gif Georgia* india.gif India
* indonesia.gif Indonesia* iran.gif Iran
* iraq.gif Iraq* israel.gif Israel
* japan.gif Japan* jordan.gif Jordan
* kazakhstan.gif Kazakhstan* kurdistan.gif Kurdistan
* kuwait.gif Kuwait* kyrgyzstan.gif Kyrgyzstan
* laos.gif Laos* lebanon.gif Lebanon
* malaysia.gif Malaysia* maldives.gif Maldives
* mongolia.gif Mongolia* nepal.gif Nepal
* north_korea.gif North Korea* oman.gif Oman
* pakistan.gif Pakistan* palestine_palestinian_forces.gif Palestine
* philippines.gif Philippines* vietnam_republic.gif Republic of Vietnam
* qatar.gif Qatar* saudi_arabia.gif Saudi Arabia
* singapore.gif Singapore* korea_south.gif South Korea
* sri_lanka.gif Sri Lanka* syria.gif Syria
* taiwan.gif Taiwan (Republic of China)* tajikistan.gif Tajikistan
* thailand.gif Thailand* turkmenistan.gif Turkmenistan
* turkey.gif Turkey* uae.gif United Arab Emirates
* uzbekistan.gif Uzbekistan* vietnam.gif Vietnam
* yemen_arab_republic.gif Yemen Arab Republic* yemen_democratic_republic.gif Yemen (Democratic Republic)
* yemen.gif Yemen 


* albania.gif Albania * austria.gif Austria
* belarus.gif Belarus* belgium.gif Belgium
* bih.gif Bosnia and Herzegovina * bulgaria.gif Bulgaria
* croatia.gif Croatia* czechoslovakia.gif Czechoslovakia
* czech%20republic.gif Czech Republic* denmark.gif Denmark
* ddr.gif East Germany* estonia.gif Estonia
* finland.gif Finland* france.gif France
* germany.gif Germany - after 1945 & Unified* germany_ww2.gif Germany (Third Reich)
* greece.gif Greece* hungary.gif Hungary
* iceland.gif Iceland* ireland.gif Ireland
* italy.gif Italy* kosovo.gif Kosovo
* latvia.gif Latvia* lithuania.gif Lithuania
* luxembourg.gif Luxembourg* macedonia.gif Macedonia
* malta.gif Malta* moldova.gif Moldova
* montenegro.gif Montenegro* netherlands.gif Netherlands
* norway.gif Norway* poland.gif Poland
* portugal.gif Portugal* romania.gif Romania
* russia.gif Russia* serbia.gif Serbia
* serbia.gif Serbian Krajina* slovakia.gif Slovakia
* slovenia.gif Slovenia* spain.gif Spain
* serbia.gif Srpska Republic* sweden.gif Sweden
* switzerland.gif Switzerland* ukraine.gif Ukraine
* united%20kingdom.gif United Kingdom* ussr.gif USSR (the Soviet Union)
* yugoslavia.gifYugoslavia 


* canada.gif Canada* usa.gif USA (United States of America)


* antigua_and_barbuda.gif Antigua and Barbuda* bahamas.gif Bahamas (Commonwealth of)
* barbados.gif Barbados* belize.gif Belize
* costa%20rica.gif Costa Rica* cuba.gif Cuba
* dominican%20republic.gif Dominican Republic* el%20salvador.gif El Salvador
* guatemala.gif Guatemala* haiti.gif Haiti
* honduras.gif Honduras* jamaica.gif Jamaica
* mexico.gif Mexico* nicaragua.gif Nicaragua
* panama.gif Panama* puerto_rico.gif Puerto Rico
* saint_kitts_and_nevis.gif Saint Kitts and Nevis* saintlucia.gif Saint Lucia
* saintvincent.gif Saint Vincent and the Grenadines* trinidad_and_tobago.gif Trinidad and Tobago


* argentina.gif Argentina* bolivia.gif Bolivia
* brazil.gif Brazil* chile.gif Chile
* colombia.gif Colombia* ecuador.gif Ecuador
* guyana.gif Guyana (Cooperative Republic)* paraguay.gif Paraguay
* peru.gif Peru* suriname.gif Suriname
* uruguay.gif Uruguay* venezuela.gif Venezuela


* australia.gif Australia* fiji.gif Fiji (Republic of)
* nzealand.gif New Zealand* png.gif Papua New Guinea
* tonga.gif Tonga* vanuatu.gif Vanuatu


"Families" of patterns

  • DPM (British) - Disruptive Pattern Material
  • Flecktarn - the German flecktarnmuster and its derivatives
  • Leaf - US M1948 ERDL derivatives
  • Lizard - French or Portuguese pattern derivatives
  • Puzzle - "jigsaw puzzle" patterns (Belgium, Yugoslavia etc.)
  • Rain - used by many Warsaw Pact Countries
  • Splinter - German WW2 Wehrmacht, Bulgaria, Sweden etc.

Camouflage on military vehicles

Camouflage on military vehicles

Camouflage on military aircraft

Camouflage on military aircraft

Camouflage on naval vessels

Camouflage on naval vessels

Camouflage in movies

Camouflage in movies

Fakes and reproductions

Fakes and reproductions

Commercial camouflage patterns

Commercial camouflage patterns


This site is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Jean F. Borsarello, Mr. Michael Powlen and Mr Yves Debay - mentors, colleagues and friends. Each of these distinguished gentlemen made significant contributions to the field of military camouflage studies at a time when very little research was available from any sources, so it is to them we owe a huge debt of gratitude. Their devotion to this obscure field of study is a model we may all hope to emulate.